Вы на НеОфициальном сайте факультета ЭиП

На нашем портале ежедневно выкладываются материалы способные помочь студентам. Курсовые, шпаргалки, ответы и еще куча всего что может понадобиться в учебе!
Главная Контакты Карта сайта
 
Где мы?

Реклама


Комментарии: 1 Просмотров: 15798 Автор: admin

A Partnership is an association of two or more persons to carry on a business for profit. When the owners of the Partnership have unlimited liability they are called general partners. If partners have limited liability they are limited partners. There may be a silent partner as well-a person who is known to the public as a member of the firm but without authority in management. The reverse of the silent partner is the secret partner – a person who takes part in management but who is not know to the public.

 Any business may have the form of the partnership, for example, in such professional fields as medicine, law, accounting, insurance and stockbrokerage. Limited partnerships are a common form of ownership in real estate, oil prospecting, quarrying industries, etc.

 Partnerships have more advantages than sole proprietorships if  one needs a big capital or diversified management. Like sole proprietorships they are easy to form and often get tax benefits from the government.

Partnerships have certain disadvantages too. One is unlimited liability. It means that each partner is responsible for all debts and is legally responsible for the whole business. Another disadvantage is that partners may disagree with each other.

Комментарии: 0 Просмотров: 10921 Автор: admin

Marketing includes all the business activities connected with the movement of goods and services from producers to consumers. Sometimes it is called distribution. On the one hand, marketing is made up of such activities as transporting, storing and selling goods and, on the other hand, a series of decisions you make during the process of moving goods from producer to user. Marketing operations include product planning, buying, storage, pricing, promotion, selling, credit, traffic and marketing research.

The ability to recognize early trends is very important. Producers must know why, where, for what purpose the consumers buy. Market research helps the producer to predict what the people will want. And through advertising he attempts to influence the customer to buy. Marketing operations are very expensive. They take up more than half of the consumer’s dollar. The trend in the USA has been to high mass consumption. The construction of good shopping centres has made goods available to consumers. It provided a wide range of merchandise and plenty of parking facilities.

Комментарии: 0 Просмотров: 14516 Автор: admin

In business, organization structure means the relationship between positions and people who hold the positions. Organization structure is very important because it provides an efficient work system as well as a system of communication.

Historically, line structure is the oldest type of organization structure. The main idea of it is direct vertical relationships between the positions and tasks of each level, and the positions and tasks above and bellow each level. For example, a sales manager may be in a line position between a vice-president of marketing and a salesman. Thus a vice president of marketing has direct authority over a sales manager. A sales manager in his turn has direct authority over a salesman. This chain of command simplifies the problems of giving and taking orders.

When a business grows in size and becomes more complex, there is a need for specialists. In such case administrators may organize staff departments and add staff specialists to do specific work. These people are usually busy with services, they are not tied in with the company product. The activities of the staff departments include an accounting, personnel, credit and advertising. Generally they do not give orders to other departments.

Комментарии: 1 Просмотров: 8410 Автор: admin

The international corporation or global company has its origin. Usually it is the outgrowth of the great trading companies of the 17th and 18th centuries, in 1811 a New York statute said corporations could be created by the filing of documents. After that it became a matter of bureaucratic operations to become a corporation. By 1850 it was a very common thing in the United States and was under general statute in European countries as well. Since that time the corporate movement began. As the jet plane, satellite communications and computers began, it became possible for a company to control business in all the world.

The-growth of international corporations operations is faster than the economic growth of the industrialized nations. There are some projects which predict that within a generation almost a half of the free words production will be internationalized.

This trend for internationalism presupposes some benefits such as new jobs, higher living standards and the closing of the gaps between people -economic, educational and technological. At the same time serious questions, can be asked. Is it the most efficient way to use world resources? Can the international corporation be the best force for a better world? Is it politically stronger than government? Can it take care of the self interest and competitiveness on behalf of the greatest good? And in what way can the global company work toward easing the world’s crises - monetary, political, energy and food?

Комментарии: 0 Просмотров: 18907 Автор: admin

A business corporation is an institution established for the purpose of making profit. It is operated by individuals. Their shares of ownership are represented by stock certificates. A person who owns a stock certificate is called a stock-holder.

There are several advantages of the corporate form of ownership. The first is the ability to attract financial resources. The next advantage is the corporation attracts a large amount of capital it can invest it in plants, equipment and research. And the third advantage is that a corporation can offer higher salaries and thus attract talented managers and specialists.

The privately owned business corporation is one type of corporation. There are some other types too. Educational, religious, charitable institutions can also incorporate. Usually such corporation does not issue stock and is nonprofit. If there is a profit it is reinvested in the institution rather than distributed to private stockholders.

In some western countries, cities, states, federal government and special agencies can establish governmental corporations. A few examples of these governmental corporations are state universities, state hospitals and city owned utilities. Governmental corporations are non-profit as a rule and usually they do not issue stock certificates.

Комментарии: 0 Просмотров: 11109 Автор: admin

Corporations need financing for the purchase of assets and the payment of expenses. The corporations can issue shares in exchange for money or property. Sometimes it is called as equity funding. The holders of the shares form the ownership of the company. Each share is represented by a stock certificate, which is negotiable. It means that one buy and sell it. The value of a share is determined by the net assets divided by the total number of shares outstanding. The value of the share also depends on the success of the company. The greater the success, the more value the shares have.

A corporation can also get capital by borrowing. It is called debt funding. If a corporation borrows money, they give notes or bonds. They are also negotiable. But the interest has to be paid out whether business is profitable or not.

When running the corporation, management must consider both the outflow and inflow of capital. The outflow is formed by the purchase of inventory and supplies, payment of salaries. The inflow is formed by the sale of goods and services. In the long run the inflow must be greater than the outflow. It results in a profit. In addition, a company must deduct its costs, expenses, losses on bad debts, interest on borrowed capital and other items. It helps to determine if the financial management has been profitable. The amount of risk involved is also an important factor. It determines the fund raising and it shows if a particular corporation is a good investment.

Комментарии: 0 Просмотров: 7218 Автор: admin

The computer industry is one of the largest in western countries and especially in the USA. It includes companies that manufacture, sell and lease computers, as well as companies that supply products and services for people working with computers.

A computer cannot think. A human operator puts data into the computer and gives instructions. The operator writes instructions which determine the mathematical operations on information. A computer solves mathematical problems very rapidly. Traditionally, the computer in business is used to process data. This involves different administrative functions such as preparation of payrolls, inventory control in manufacturing, warehousing and distribution operations, customer accounting, billing by banks, insurance companies, public utilities and mass circulation magazines. Now the computer takes on new kinds of jobs. It has become more involved in business operations as an essential tool in making decisions at the highest administrative level.

Комментарии: 1 Просмотров: 10857 Автор: admin

Lesson 8.

Banks and business.

Banks are different in different countries. Let’s speak about the banks in the United States of America. There, commercial banks are classified into two main groups. First, there are national banks. They are charted are supervised by the Federal Government. Secondly, there are state banks. They are charted and supervised by the state in which they are operated. All commercial banks can make loans to borrowers.

Major commercial banks in such cities as Tokyo, Paris, Rio cooperate with each other. In this way they finance imports and exports between countries.

An importer buys merchandise from another country using the currency of that country. For that purpose he buys this currency from the foreign exchange department of his bank. And in the same way if an exporter receives foreign money from sales to other countries, he sells this currency to his bank. By this method the currency of any country can usually be exchanged.

 

Комментарии: 2 Просмотров: 8621 Автор: admin

Lesson 6.

Accounting.

Accounting shows a financial picture of the firm. An accounting department records and measures the activity of a business. It reports on the effects of the transactions on the firms financial condition. Accounting records give a very important data. It is used by management, stockholders, creditors, independent analysts, banks and government.

Most businesses prepare regularly the two types of records. That is the income statement and balance sheet. These statements show how money was received and spend by the company.

One major tool for the analysis of accounting records is ratio analysis. A ratio analysis is the relationship of two figures. In finance we operate with three main categories of ratios. One ratio deals with profitability, for example, the Return on Investment Ratio. It is used as a measure of a firms operating efficiency.

The second set of ratios deals with assets and liabilities. It helps a company to evaluate its current financial position. The third set of ratios deals with the overall financial structure of the company. It analyses the value of the ownership of the firm.

 


Популярные новости

Статистика сайта



Rambler's Top100



 
Copyright © НеОфициальный сайт факультета ЭиП