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Marketing includes all the business activities connected with the movement of goods and services from producers to consumers. Sometimes it is called distribution. On the one hand, marketing is made up of such activities as transporting, storing and selling goods and, on the other hand, a series of decisions you make during the process of moving goods from producer to user. Marketing operations include product planning, buying, storage, pricing, promotion, selling, credit, traffic and marketing research.
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Comparative Analysis Of The History Of The Computer Science And The Computer Engineering In The USA And Ukraine


   Howard Aiken’s contributions to the development of the computer -notably the Harvard Mark I (IBM ASSC) machine, and its successor the Mark II - are often excluded from the mainstream history of computers on two technicalities. The first is that Mark I and Mark II were electro-mechanical rather than electronic; the second one is that Aiken was never convinced that computer programs should be treated as data in what has come to be known as the von Neumann concept, or the stored program.

   It is not proposed to discuss here the origins and significance of the stored program. Nor I wish to deal with the related problem of whether the machines before the stored program were or were not “computers”. This subject is complicated by the confusion in actual names given to machines. For example, the ENIAC, which did not incorporate a stored program, was officially named a computer: Electronic Numeral Integrator and Computer. But the first stored-program machine to be put into regular operation was Maurice Wiles’ EDSAC: Electronic Delay Storage Automatic Calculator. It seems to be rather senseless to deny many truly significant innovations (by H. H. Aiken and by Eckert and Mauchly), which played an important role in the history of computers, on the arbitrary ground that they did not incorporate the stored-program concept. Additionally, in the case of Aiken, it is significant that there is a current computer technology that does not incorporate the stored programs and that is designated as (at least by TEXAS INSTRUMENTSв) as “Harvard architecture”, though, it should more properly be called “Aiken architecture”. In this technology the program is fix and not subject to any alteration save by intent - as in some computers used for telephone switching and in ROM.

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Инвестируем в знания и учим иностранные языки

Знаете ли Вы, что сотрудники, знающие иностранные языки получают зарплату на порядок выше и вообще продвигаются по карьерной лестнице гораздо быстрее.

Ведь наша жизнь изменчива и никто не знает, что будет завтра, а знание иностранного языка очень может помочь в трудоустройстве. Поэтому начните изучать язык прямо сейчас. Думайте о своем будущем и развитии своей карьеры.

Похвально, что сейчас родители думают о всестороннем развитии своих чад. Возможно и владение несколькими языками и обучение за границей.

А что же делать тому, о ком родители не так беспокоились?

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Самостоятельное изучение английского языка.

Нет людей, неспособных к изучению английского языка, языковые способности достаточно сильно варьируются.

Одним английский язык дается быстрее и легче, хотя они начинают изучение английского языка с азов, другим - медленнее и с трудом. Люди, которые считают себя не способными к изучению языков, не хотят, в силу свое лени, подумать об изучение английского языка всерьез - тут ничем помочь нельзя, либо не знают, как правильно организовать свое самостоятельное изучение английского языка и привести его в систему.
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Wholesaling is a part of the marketing system. It provides channels of distribution which help to bring goods to the market. Generally indirect channels are used to market manufactured consumer goods. It could be from the manufacturer to the wholesaler, from the retailer to the consumer or through more complicated channels. A direct channel moves goods from the manufacturer or producer to the consumer.

Wholesaling is often a field of small business, but there is a growing chain movement in the western countries. About a quarter of wholesaling units account for one-third of total sales.

Two-third of the wholesaling middleman are merchant wholesalers who take title to the goods they deal in. There are also agent middlemen who negotiate purchases or sales or both. They don’t take title to the goods they deal in. Sometimes they take possession though. This is a percentage of the value of the goods they sell.

Wholesalers simplify the process of distribution. For example, the average supermarket stocks 5.000 items in groceries alone, a retail druggist can have more than 6.000 items. As a wholesaler handles a large assortment of items from numerous manufacturers he reduces the problem of both manufacturer and retailer. The store-keeper does not have to deal directly with thousands of different people. He usually has a well-stocked store and deals with only a few wholesalers.

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A business may be privately owned in three different forms. These forms are the sole proprietorship, the partnership and the corporation. The sole proprietorship is the most common in many western countries. For example, more than 80 per cent of all businesses in the United States are sole proprietorships.

But it is evident that sole proprietorships do not do the greatest volume of business. They account for only 16 percent of all business receipts, for example, in America. What kind of business is likely to be a sole proprietorship? First of all, service industries such as Laundromats, beauty shops, different repair shops, restaurants.

Comprehension questions

1.     What are three different ways that a business can be privately owned?

2.     What forms do most European countries have?

3.     What forms do the businesses in the USSR have?

4.     Name some businesses that are likely to be sole proprietorships. Why do you think so?

Name some businesses that are not likely to be sole proprietorships. Why do you

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Anna is having lunch with her sister Barbara. Anna has just accepted a position as an Administrative Assistant. Her boss is an executive with a firm that manufactures heavy machinery used in construction. …

an executive


an administrator

vice president

head of department



to set objectives

to delegate authority

to work under pressure


to be competent

Exercise 3. Your executive is a very tough man. What should his staff do to please him?

For ideas:

To be creative

To be well

To keep fit

To be punctual

To be enthusiastic

To obey the rules

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Retailing is selling goods and services to the ultimate consumer. Thus, the retailer is the most expensive link in the chain of distribution. Being middlemen, they make their profit by charging the customer 25 to 100 per cent more than the price they paid for the item.

The retailers operate through stores, mail-order houses, vending machine operators. There are different types of retail stores: department stores, discount houses, cooperatives, single line retailers. The major part (over 95 per cent) of retail establishments concentrate on a single line of merchandise for example, food, hardware, etc. But nowadays there is a trend for many single line stores to take on a greater variety of supplies.

The retailer performs many necessary functions. First, he may provide a convenient location. Second, he often guarantees and services the merchandise he sells. Third, the retailer helps to promote the product through displays, advertising or sales people. Fourth, the retailer can finance the customer by extending credit. Also the retailer stores the goods in his outlet by having goods available.


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Lesson 9.

Product development and planning.

The number of new products coming into the market of western countries every year is overwhelming. The major part of these products is not new, but adaptations. It means that these products are not new, they are existing items to which a modification has been made. Only few products are really original or innovations. For instance a clock-television is an adaptation, but TV-set itself, the refrigerator – each was an innovation. A great number of innovations and adaptations are designed, producer and marketed by small businesses. Very often a new product is formed on the basis of the new business. Sometimes there is a patent to make the business more successful. But it happens very often that market research hasn’t been done carefully.

Even in case larger scale producers do more research and testing there is no sure success. A promising new product may be also robbed of success by unreasonable prices, inadequate promotion and poor selling methods. Generally less that one fifth of all new products turn out to be profitable.


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All products and all services have prices. The price depends on different thing such as credit terms, delivery, trade-inallowance, guarantees, quality and other forms of service, which price can produce the biggest profit during a long period of time. It’s hardly possible to determine such a price. The price may be too high to produce a large volume or too low to cover costs. No other area of marketing operations has been a subject to bad practice. Many businesses persue unsound price policies for long periods of time and are not aware about it.

Prices can be determined in different ways. For example, the prices of meat, cotton and other agricultural prices can be decided in large central market where forces of supply and demand exist.  This is pure price competition. The prices on industrial products (iron, steel, etc.) are usually decided by large companies. As a rule the amount and price of goods sold to large number of buyers is controlled by a few competing sellers. Prices also can be set by the government, usually for different public services-railroads, electricity, manufactured gas, bus services, etc.

If demand increases, prices rise, profits expand and new investment is attracted. But other factors may be involved as well. Prices are related to each other in different ways. Ultimately, everything is related in price, since the consumer can buy and must pay for everything out of a particular, limited amount of money.

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